User Switching

説明

このプラグインを利用すると、ボタンをクリックするだけで WordPress のアカウントを切り替えられるようになります。クリックすると直ちに目的のユーザーアカウントでログインし直します。異なるアカウントでログイン・ログアウトするテスト環境や、複数のアカウントを使い分ける必要がある管理者に便利なプラグインです。

機能

  • スイッチユーザー: ユーザー画面で他のユーザーに瞬時に切り替えます。
  • スイッチバック: 元のアカウントに瞬時に戻ります。
  • スイッチオフ: ログアウトしますが、瞬時にログインし直せる状態にしておきます。
  • Switching between users is secure (see the セキュリティー section below).
  • Compatible with WordPress, WordPress Multisite, WooCommerce, BuddyPress, bbPress, and most two-factor authentication plugins.

セキュリティー

  • Only users with the ability to edit other users can switch user accounts. By default this is only Administrators on single site installations, and Super Admins on Multisite installations.
  • パスワードは表示されません (表示できません)。
  • アカウントを切り替えたり戻ったりする際、WordPress の Cookie 認証システムを使用します。
  • WordPress の nonce セキュリティ システムを実装しているので、切り替えようとしているユーザー以外の第三者が切り替え可能になることはありません。
  • Full support for user session validation where appropriate.
  • 管理画面での SSL 通信をフルサポート (SSL が有効な場合)

使い方

  1. WordPress の ユーザーメニューを開くと、各ユーザー名の下のアクションリストの中に切り替えるというリンクがあることがわかります。
  2. このリンクをクリックすると、直ちにそのユーザーアカウントに切り替わります。
  3. ダッシュボード画面や WordPress ツールバーのプロフィールメニューの○○に戻すリンクをクリックすれば、元のアカウントに戻ることができます。

スイッチオフ機能については、よくある質問 を参照してください。

Other Plugins

I maintain several other plugins for developers. Check them out:

  • Query Monitor is the developer tools panel for WordPress
  • WP Crontrol lets you view and control what’s happening in the WP-Cron system

Privacy Statement

User Switching makes use of browser cookies in order to allow users to switch to another account. Its cookies operate using the same mechanism as the authentication cookies in WordPress core, therefore their values contain the user’s user_login field in plain text which should be treated as potentially personally identifiable information. The names of the cookies are:

  • wordpress_user_sw_{COOKIEHASH}
  • wordpress_user_sw_secure_{COOKIEHASH}
  • wordpress_user_sw_olduser_{COOKIEHASH}

User Switching does not send data to any third party, nor does it include any third party resources, nor will it ever do so.

See also the FAQ for some questions relating to privacy and safety when switching between users.

Ethical Open Source

User Switching is considered Ethical Open Source because it meets all of the criteria of The Ethical Source Definition (ESD):

  1. It benefits the commons.
  2. It is created in the open.
  3. Its community is welcoming and just.
  4. It puts accessibility first.
  5. It prioritizes user safety.
  6. It protects user privacy.
  7. It encourages fair compensation.

スクリーンショット

  • The Switch To link on the Users screen

  • The Switch To link on a user's profile

FAQ

Does this plugin work with PHP 8?

Yes.

「スイッチオフ」とはどういう意味ですか。

スイッチオフすると、現在のアカウントからログアウトしますが、ユーザー ID を認証 cookie に保存するので、手動でログインし直さなくてもログイン状態に戻れます。ユーザーを切り替えずに元のユーザーに戻るような動作です。

The Switch Off link can be found in your profile menu in the WordPress toolbar. Once you’ve switched off you’ll see a Switch back link on the Log In screen and in the footer of your site.

このプラグインは WordPress マルチサイトでも動作しますか。

はい。ネットワーク管理者のユーザー画面でユーザーを切り替えることもできます。

BuddyPress と一緒に使えますか ?

はい。メンバープロフィール画面やメンバーリスト画面でユーザーを切り替えることもできます。

bbPress と一緒に使えますか ?

はい。メンバープロフィール画面でユーザーを切り替えることもできます。

Does this plugin work with WooCommerce?

Yes. For maximum compatibility you should use WooCommerce version 3.6 or later.

2段階認証プラグインを使用しているサイトでも動作しますか?

はい、ほとんど動作します。

わかっている例外の一つは Duo Security です。このプラグインを使っている場合は、User Switching for Duo Security アドオンをインストールする必要があります。このアドオンは、ユーザー切り替えの際に2段階認証プロンプトが表示されるのを抑止します。

アカウントを切り替えるのに必要な権限は何ですか?

ユーザーアカウントを切り替えるには、edit_users 権限が必要です。デフォルトでは、この権限があるのは管理者だけです。マルチサイトを有効化したサイトでは、特権管理者だけがこの権限を持ちます。

Can the ability to switch accounts be granted to other users or roles?

Yes. The switch_users meta capability can be explicitly granted to a user or a role to allow them to switch users regardless of whether or not they have the edit_users capability. For practical purposes, the user or role will also need the list_users capability so they can access the Users menu in the WordPress admin area.

Can the ability to switch accounts be denied from users?

Yes. User capabilities in WordPress can be set to false to deny them from a user. Denying the switch_users capability prevents the user from switching users, even if they have the edit_users capability.

add_filter( 'user_has_cap', function( $allcaps, $caps, $args, $user ) {
    if ( 'switch_to_user' === $args[0] ) {
        if ( my_condition() ) {
            $allcaps['switch_users'] = false;
        }
    }
    return $allcaps;
}, 9, 4 );

Note that this needs to happen before User Switching’s own capability filtering, hence the priority of 9.

Can I add a custom “Switch To” link to my own plugin or theme?

Yes. Use the user_switching::maybe_switch_url() method for this. It takes care of authentication and returns a nonce-protected URL for the current user to switch into the provided user account.

if ( method_exists( 'user_switching', 'maybe_switch_url' ) ) {
    $url = user_switching::maybe_switch_url( $target_user );
    if ( $url ) {
        printf(
            '<a href="%1$s">Switch to %2$s</a>',
            esc_url( $url ),
            esc_html( $target_user->display_name )
        );
    }
}

This link also works for switching back to the original user, but if you want an explicit link for this you can use the following code:

if ( method_exists( 'user_switching', 'get_old_user' ) ) {
    $old_user = user_switching::get_old_user();
    if ( $old_user ) {
        printf(
            '<a href="%1$s">Switch back to %2$s</a>',
            esc_url( user_switching::switch_back_url( $old_user ) ),
            esc_html( $old_user->display_name )
        );
    }
}

Can I determine whether the current user switched into their account?

Yes. Use the current_user_switched() function for this.

if ( function_exists( 'current_user_switched' ) ) {
    $switched_user = current_user_switched();
    if ( $switched_user ) {
        // User is logged in and has switched into their account.
        // $switched_user is the WP_User object for their originating user.
    }
}

Does this plugin allow a user to frame another user for an action?

Potentially yes, but User Switching includes some safety protections for this and there are further precautions you can take as a site administrator:

  • User Switching stores the ID of the originating user in the new session for the user they switch to. Although this session does not persist by default when they subsequently switch back, there will be a record of this ID if your MySQL server has query logging enabled.
  • User Switching stores the login name of the originating user in an authentication cookie (see the Privacy Statement for more information). If your server access logs store cookie data, there will be a record of this login name (along with the IP address) for each access request.
  • You can install an audit trail plugin such as Simple History, WP Activity Log, or Stream, all of which have built-in support for User Switching and all of which log an entry when a user switches into another account.
  • User Switching triggers an action when a user switches account, switches off, or switches back (see below). You can use these actions to perform additional logging for safety purposes depending on your requirements.

One or more of the above should allow you to correlate an action with the originating user when a user switches account, should you need to.

Bear in mind that even without the User Switching plugin in use, any user who has the ability to edit another user can still frame another user for an action by, for example, changing their password and manually logging into that account. If you are concerned about users abusing others, you should take great care when granting users administrative rights.

Can regular admins on Multisite installations switch accounts?

いいえ。User Switching for Regular Admins プラグインをインストールすれば可能になります。

Can I switch users directly from the admin toolbar?

Yes, there’s a third party add-on plugin for this: Admin Bar User Switching.

ユーザーがアカウントを切り替えるときに呼び出されるアクションはありますか?

Yes. When a user switches to another account, the switch_to_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches to another user account.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$new_token` and `$old_token` parameters were added.
 *
 * @param int    $user_id     The ID of the user being switched to.
 * @param int    $old_user_id The ID of the user being switched from.
 * @param string $new_token   The token of the session of the user being switched to. Can be an empty string
 *                            or a token for a session that may or may not still be valid.
 * @param string $old_token   The token of the session of the user being switched from.
 */
do_action( 'switch_to_user', $user_id, $old_user_id, $new_token, $old_token );

When a user switches back to their originating account, the switch_back_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches back to their originating account.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$new_token` and `$old_token` parameters were added.
 *
 * @param int       $user_id     The ID of the user being switched back to.
 * @param int|false $old_user_id The ID of the user being switched from, or false if the user is switching back
 *                               after having been switched off.
 * @param string    $new_token   The token of the session of the user being switched to. Can be an empty string
 *                               or a token for a session that may or may not still be valid.
 * @param string    $old_token   The token of the session of the user being switched from.
 */
do_action( 'switch_back_user', $user_id, $old_user_id, $new_token, $old_token );

When a user switches off, the switch_off_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches off.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$old_token` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param int    $old_user_id The ID of the user switching off.
 * @param string $old_token   The token of the session of the user switching off.
 */
do_action( 'switch_off_user', $old_user_id, $old_token );

In addition, User Switching respects the following filters from WordPress core when appropriate:

  • login_redirect when switching to another user.
  • logout_redirect when switching off.

Do you accept donations?

I am accepting sponsorships via the GitHub Sponsors program and any support you can give will help me maintain this plugin and keep it free for everyone.

評価

2021年11月15日
So essential that it ought to be part of WP Core. Our website has hundreds of staff users, and when one of them has a "Permissions problem", this plugin is the best way to sort it out. Many thanks John!
2021年10月21日
This plugin does what it says and makes it so easy to test issues for specific users. Really appreciate having this availble!
201件のレビューをすべて表示

貢献者と開発者

User Switching はオープンソースソフトウェアです。以下の人々がこのプラグインに貢献しています。

貢献者

“User Switching” は45ロケールに翻訳されています。 翻訳者のみなさん、翻訳へのご協力ありがとうございます。

“User Switching” をあなたの言語に翻訳しましょう。

開発に興味がありますか ?

コードを閲覧するか、SVN リポジトリをチェックするか、開発ログRSS で購読してみてください。

変更履歴

1.5.8

  • Avoid a fatal if the interim-login query parameter is present on a page other than wp-login.php.

1.5.7

  • Fix some issues that could lead to PHP errors given a malformed cookie.
  • Fix documentation.

1.5.6

  • Add a class to the table row on the user edit screen.
  • Updated docs.

1.5.5

  • Added the user_switching_in_footer filter to disable output in footer on front end.
  • Documentation additions and improvements.

1.5.4

  • Fix a cookie issue caused by Jetpack 8.1.1 which prevented switching back to the original user.

1.5.3

  • Remove usage of a method that’s been deprecated in WordPress 5.3

1.5.2

  • Set the correct lang attribute on User Switching’s admin notice.
  • Move the WooCommerce session forgetting to an action callback so it can be unhooked if necessary.

1.5.1

  • Add appropriate HTTP response codes to the error states.
  • Display User Switching’s messages in the original user’s locale.
  • Increase the priority of the hook that sets up the cookie constants. See #40.
  • Don’t attempt to output the ‘Switch To’ link on author archives when the queried object isn’t a user. See #39.

1.5.0

  • Add support for forgetting WooCommerce sessions when switching between users. Requires WooCommerce 3.6+.

1.4.2

  • Don’t attempt to add the Switch To link to the admin toolbar when viewing an author archive in the admin area. This prevents a fatal error occurring when filtering custom post type listing screens by authors in the admin area.

1.4.1

  • Add a Switch To link to the Edit User admin toolbar menu when viewing an author archive.
  • Add a Switch back link to the Edit User admin toolbar menu when viewing an author archive and you’re already switched.

1.4.0

  • Add support for user session retention, reuse, and destruction when switching to and back from other user accounts.
  • Add support for the switch_users meta capability for fine grained control over the ability to switch user accounts.
  • More code and documentation quality improvements.

1.3.1

  • Add support for the X-Redirect-By header in WordPress 5.0.
  • Allow User Switching’s admin notices to be dismissed.
  • Introduce a privacy statement.

1.3.0

  • Update the BuddyPress compatibility.
  • Various code and inline docs improvements.

1.2.0

  • Improve the Switch Back functionality when the interim login window is shown.
  • Always show the Switch Back link in the Meta widget if it’s present.

1.1.0

  • Introduce a user_switching_switched_message filter to allow customisation of the message displayed to switched users in the admin area.
  • Switch to safe redirects for extra paranoid hardening.
  • Docblock improvements.
  • Coding standards improvements.

1.0.9

  • Remove the bundled languages in favour of language packs from translate.wordpress.org.

1.0.8

  • Chinese (Taiwan) and Czech translations.
  • Updated Dutch, Spanish, Hebrew, and German translations.
  • Add an ID attribute to the links that User Switching outputs on the WordPress login screen, BuddyPress screens, and bbPress screens.
  • Avoid a deprecated argument notice when the user-actions admin toolbar node has been removed.

1.0.7

  • Azerbaijani, Danish, and Bosnian translations.
  • Add back the ‘User Switching’ heading on the user profile screen.
  • Correct the value passed to the $old_user_id parameter of the switch_back_user hook when a user has been switched off. This should be boolean false rather than 0.
  • Docblocks for actions and filters.
  • コードスタンダードの追加修正。

1.0.6

  • Correct the values passed to the switch_back_user action when a user switches back.
  • コードスタンダードの追加修正。

1.0.5

  • Norwegian translation by Per Søderlind.
  • コードスタンダードの修正。

1.0.4

  • Support for the new logout_redirect and removable_query_args filters in WordPress 4.2.

1.0.3

  • Ante Sepic によるクロアチア語の翻訳。
  • Avoid PHP notices caused by other plugins which erroneously use boolean true as a capability.

1.0.2

  • Turkish translation by Abdullah Pazarbasi.
  • ArianServ によるルーマニア語翻訳。
  • Thom によるオランダ語翻訳。
  • evigiannakou によるギリシャ語翻訳。
  • Bulgarian translation by Petya Raykovska.
  • Finnish translation by Sami Keijonen.
  • Italian translation by Alessandro Curci and Alessandro Tesoro.
  • Updated Arabic, Spanish, German, and Polish translations.

1.0.1

  • Shorten the names of User Switching’s cookies to avoid problems with Suhosin’s over-zealous default rules.
  • Add backwards compatibility for the deprecated OLDUSER_COOKIE constant.

1.0

  • Security hardening for sites that use HTTPS in the admin area and HTTP on the front end.
  • Add an extra auth check before the nonce verification.
  • Pretty icon next to the switch back links.

0.9

  • Minor fixes for the login_redirect filter.
  • Increase the specificity of the switch_to_old_user and switch_off nonces.

0.8.9

  • French translation by Fx Bénard.
  • Hebrew translation by Rami Y.
  • Indonesian translation by Eko Ikhyar.
  • Portuguese translation by Raphael Mendonça.

0.8.8

  • Spanish Translation by Marcelo Pedra.
  • User Switching is now a network-only plugin when used on Multisite.

0.8.7

  • Respect the secure_logged_in_cookie and login_redirect filters.